Initial Mutation: Epithets

 

The three charts in this section of the Grammar describe the initial mutation of an epithet when it follows a noun.  An epithet is either an adjective or a noun in the genitive that follows a noun.  The initial mutation of an epithet depends on both the case and number (singular or plural) of the noun that precedes it.

 

Initial Mutation of Epithet After Masculine Singular Noun

 

nominative no change A-tá fear caol / fear Cruachan / an fear caol /
an fear ceóil san tigh
.
vocative:
with inflected masucline noun
lenition of following
adjective or noun
A fhir chaoil / A fhir cheóil
vocative:
with uninflected masculine noun
(not metaphorical)
either no change;

or, lenition of following adjective or noun

A dhuine caol / ceóil;

or, A dhuine chaoil / cheóil

vocative:
metaphorical usage
no change A dhuine caol / ceóil
accusative
(where marked as accusative*)
eclipsis of following
adjective or noun
mol fhear gcaol / mol fhear gceóil /
mol an bhfear gcaol / mol an bhfear gceóil /
leis an bhfear gcaol / leis an bhfear gceoil /
mol fhilidh gcaol / mol fhilidh gceóil /
mol an bhfilidh gcaol / mol an bhfilidh gceóil
accusative
(where unmarked*)
no change (treated as nominative);

or, eclipsis of following adjective or noun

mol fear caol / ceóil , mol an fear caol;

or, mol fear gcaol / gceóil, mol an bhfear gcaol

genitive
(certain types of inflected
masculine genitive nouns)
lenition of following adjective
or noun
mac Maghnais chaoil / mac Maghnais fhinn /
Teach an fhir chaoil / Teach an fhir cheóil /
mac Dé bhí
genitive
(other types of
masculine genitive nouns)
no change mac Maghnasa caoil / mac Maghnasa finn /
mac an fhileadh caoil
dative lenition of following
adjective or noun
don fhior chaol / don fhior cheóil /
don fhilidh chaol / don asbal chaol /
don tsluagh mhór

*Note: the accusative can be marked by accusative inflexion and/or by eclipsis after the article or (in the absence of the article) by lenition of the direct object of a verb: e.g. mol mhnaoi, mol an bhfear, mol fhear.

 

 

 

Initial Mutation of Epithet After Feminine Singular Noun

 

nominative lenition of following
adjective or noun
A-tá an bhean chaol / an bhean cheóil san tigh.
A-tá bó chaol / an bhó chaol agam.
vocative lenition of following
adjective or noun
A bhean chaol / A bhean cheóil
accusative
(where marked as accusative*)
eclipsis of following
adjective or noun
mol mhnaoi gcaoil / mol mhnaoi gceóil /
mol an mboin gcaoil.
accusative
(where unmarked*)
no change – treated as nominative mol súil gheal

(with marked accusative would
be written: mol shúil ngil)

genitive no change

(sometimes h is prefixed to a vowel)

mac mná caoile / mac mná ceóil /
mac na mná finne / mac mná Cruachan
.
Laogh na bó caoile.(h prefixed to vowel: mac mná huaisle /
rí fréimhe hUidhir
)
dative lenition of following
adjective or noun
do mhnaoi chaoil / do mhnaoi cheóil /
don mhnaoi chaoil / don mhnaoi cheóil /
do mhnaoi Chruachan
; don bhoin chaoil

*Note: the accusative can be marked by accusative inflexion and/or by eclipsis after the article or (in the absence of the article) by lenition of the direct object of a verb: e.g. mol mhnaoimol an bhfearmol fhear.

 

 

 

Initial Mutation After Plural Nouns (Masculine and Feminine)

 

certain nominative
plural forms
lenition of following
adjective or noun
na fir chaola / na hasbail chaola /
na sluaigh mhóra /
na bile mhóra
other nominative
plural forms
no change na mná caola / na mná ceóil / na daoine caola /
na ba caola
/ na bileadha móra / na sleagha caola
vocative plural no change a fhiora ceóil / a fhileadha caola / a mhná caola
accusative plural no change Mol na fiora caola / na mná ceóil /
na hasbala móra
genitive plural eclipsis of following
adjective or noun
méad na bhfear gceóil / na bhfileadh gcaol /
na n-asbal gceart / na sluagh mbeag /
na mbó mbreac / na n-adharc gcaol / na sleagh gcaol
dative plural no change do na fearaibh caola / do na fileadhaibh móra /
do na hasbalaibh

*Note: the accusative can be marked by accusative inflexion and/or by eclipsis after the article or (in the absence of the article) by lenition of the direct object of a verb: e.g. mol mhnaoimol an bhfearmol fhear.

 

css.php