Initial Mutation: After the Article

The article in Classical Modern Irish generally behaves the same way as it does in today’s standard Irish, but it differs especially in the accusative and dative singular.

Masculine Singular Nouns After the Article

 

nominative (as in today’s Irish) an t- before a vowel,
but  otherwise unchanged and not
mutating what follows it
A-tá an fear / an file / an t-asbal /
an sluagh san tigh
.
accusative an + eclipsis of eclipsable consonants
(or, when the object of a verb and
not inflected and not preceded by a
preposition can be treated as though
nominative)
Direct object of verb: Mol an bhfear
(or, as though in the nominative,
Mol an fear). Mol an bhfilidh (but not *an filidh,
because the noun is inflected). Mol an asbal
(or an t-asbal). Mol an sluagh.

After accusative-governing preposition:
Leis an bhfear (but not *leis an fear). Leis an bhfilidh
(but not *leis an filidh). Leis an asbal (but not *leis an
t-asbal
). Leis an sluagh.

genitive (as in today’s Irish) an + lenition
of lenitable consonants
(including lenition of s by t)
Teach an fhir / an fhileadh /
an asbail / an tsluaigh
.
dative an + lenition of lenitable consonants
(including lenition of s by t)
don fhior / don fhilidh / don asbal / don tsluagh

 

 

Feminine Singular Nouns After the Article

 

nominative (as in today’s Irish) an + lenition
of lenitable consonants
(including lenition of s by t)
A-tá an bhó / an adharc / an tsleagh agam.
accusative an + eclipsis of eclipsable consonants Mol an mboin / an adhairc / an sleigh
genitive (as in today’s Irish) na + h
before a vowel (but no change
to consonants)
Dath na bó / na hadhairce / na sleighe
dative an + lenition of lenitable consonants
(including lenition of s by t)
don bhoin / don adhairc / don tsleigh

 

 

Plural Nouns (Masculine and Feminine) After the Article

 

genitive (as in today’s Irish) na + eclipsis
of eclipsable letters
méad na bhfear/ na bhfileadh /
na n-asbal / na sluagh / na mbó /
na n-adharc / na sleagh
nominative, accusative,
and dative
(as in today’s Irish) na + h before
a vowel (but no change to consonants)
(nominative:) A-táid na fir / na filidh /
na hasbail / na sluaigh / na ba
(or na baoi) /
na hadharca / na sleagha san tigh.

(accusative:) Mol na fiora / na fileadha /
na hasbala / na sluagha / na bú /
na hadharca / na sleagha.

(dative:) do na fearaibh / do na fileadhaibh /
do na hasbalaibh / do na sluaghaibh /
do na buaibh / do na hadharcaibh /
do na sleaghaibh

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